Investigaciones Geográficas

Entendiendo el efecto de la agricultura itinerante (tala-quema-cultivo-abandono) en las propiedades físico-químicas del suelo en la región del Noroeste del Himalaya

Gaurav Mishra, Krishna Giri, Abhishek Jangir, Duraisamy Vasu, Jesús Rodrigo-Comino

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO.17820

Resumen

La agricultura itinerante (jhum), una práctica común para convertir tierras forestales en tierras agrícolas mediante la tala y quema, podría amenazar la provisión de servicios ecosistémicos. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto de los ciclos de cultivo itinerante sobre la calidad del suelo en la región del noreste del Himalaya utilizando el mínimo número posible de propiedades del suelo. Para lograr este objetivo, se utilizó un enfoque de índice de calidad del suelo (SQI) y técnicas multivariadas para horizontes superficiales (0-30 cm) y subsuperficiales (30-70 cm) de suelos en las áreas de bosque, tierrascultivadas y barbecho. La mayor variabilidad entre los usos de la tierra se encontró para el contenido de arcilla, CO (carbono orgánico del suelo), Mg y K intercambiables, CEC (capacidad de intercambio catiónico) y relación Ca/Mg. Por el contrario, la menor variación se registró en densidad aparente (BD), porosidad y pH. Los resultados del análisis de componentes principales (ACP) mostraron BD, textura del suelo, nitrógeno disponible (Nav), fósforo disponible (Pav), potasio disponible (Kav), calcio (Ca) y sodio (Na) como los principales indicadores capaces de explicar la calidad del suelo. Los resultados indicaron que las capas superficiales de los suelos forestales tienen una menor calidad de suelo en comparación con las tierras cultivadas. Aunque las tierras cultivadas muestran una mejor calidad del suelo en comparación con los bosques, su cultivo continuo sin fertilización y el consiguiente agotamiento de los nutrientes del suelo pueden causar una degradación de la calidad del suelo como se observa en las tierras en barbecho. El uso de estos indicadores seleccionados en la evaluación de la calidad del suelo fue útil en términos de reducción en el costo y el tiempo de análisis.

Palabras clave

Gestion de tierras; sistemas agrícolas tradicionales; Jhum; Bosque; Índice de calidad del suelo.

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Referencias

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO.17820





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