Investigaciones Geográficas

La construcción de una agenda climática global pro-crecimiento: un análisis histórico crítico

Cati Torres, Joan Moranta, Ivan Murray

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO.19351

Resumen

A finales de 2019, más de 11.000 científicos declararon que afrontamos una emergencia climática que obliga a actuar con urgencia, lo que muestra el fracaso de la agenda climática global (ACG). Desde sus inicios hace treinta años, no se ha revertido la tendencia creciente de las emisiones globales. Este artículo contribuye al debate existente en torno al análisis de la influencia de factores económicos y políticos sobre el diseño de ACG examinando su objetivo de crecimiento económico. Buscamos aclarar si las reglas del juego económico mundial, sustentadas en la ideología del crecimiento, impulsora del actual metabolismo socioeconómico extractivista que subyace a la crisis socioecológica planetaria, determinan dicha agenda. Así, revisamos los principales eventos internacionales en torno al cambio climático (CC) y documentamos un giro en los principios de la política climática a partir de los años ochenta del siglo pasado, según el cual el crecimiento dejó de verse como la causa del CC para verse como su solución. Argumentamos que el hecho de promover un desarrollo sostenible basado en el crecimiento explica el fracaso de la política climática. Y es que esto resulta en una política demasiado optimista hacia las soluciones tecnológicas y los instrumentos de mercado que lleva a creer que el crecimiento verde es posible y la solución al CC, lo que limita la acción a la “descarbonización” de la economía y la adaptación al CC ignorando otros aspectos sociopolíticos relevantes.

Palabras clave

Gases de efecto invernadero; cambio climático; gobernanza climática; soluciones tecnológicas; crecimiento verde; desarrollo sostenible.

Texto completo:

PDF (English) Estadísticas

Referencias

Arrehnius, S. (1896). On the Influence of Carbonic Acid in the Air upon the Temperature of the Ground. In J. P. Howe (Ed.), Making Climate Change History: Documents from Global Warming’s Past (pp. 39-44 (2017)). London: University of Washington Press.

Arrighi, G. (2009). Long Twentieth Century: Money, Power and the Origins of Our Time. New York: Verso Books.

Ash, C., Culotta, E., Fahrenkamp-Uppenbrink, J., Malakoff, D., Smith, J., Sugden, A., & Vignieri, S. (2013). Once and Future Climate Change. Science, 341(6145), 472–473. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.341.6145.472

Bailey, I. (2017). Climate change policy. The International Encyclopedia of Geography, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0537

Bailey, I., Gouldson, A., & Newell, P. (2011). Ecological Modernisation and the Governance of Carbon: A Critical Analysis. Antipode, 43(3), 682–703. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2011.00880.x

Boulding, K. (1966). The economics of the coming spaceship earth. In H. Jarrett (Ed.), Environmental Quality in A Growing Economy: Essays from the Sixth RFF Forum (pp. 1–20). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press.

Brand, U. (2012). Green Economy – the next oxymoron? No lessons learned from failures of implementing sustainable development. GAIA - Ecological Perspectives for Science and Society, 21(1), 28–32. https://doi.org/10.14512/gaia.21.1.9

Bryant, G. (2018). Nature as Accumulation Strategy? Finance, Nature, and Value in Carbon Markets. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, 108(3), 605–619. https://doi.org/10.1080/24694452.2017.1375887

Capellán-Pérez, I., Mediavilla, M., de Castro, C., Carpintero, Ó., & Miguel, L. J. (2015). More growth? An unfeasible option to overcome critical energy constraints and climate change. Sustainability Science, 10(3), 397–411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-015-0299-3

Castree, N., & Christophers, B. (2015). Banking Spatially on the Future: Capital Switching, Infrastructure, and the Ecological Fix. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 105(2), 378–386. https://doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2014.985622

Cavagnaro, E., & Curiel, G. (2012). The three levels of sustainability. Sheffield: Greenleaf Publishing.

Ciplet, D., & Roberts, J. T. (2017). Climate change and the transition to neoliberal environmental governance. Global Environmental Change, 46, 148–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2017.09.003

Díaz, S., Settele, J., Brondízio, E. S., Ngo, H. T., Agard, J., Arneth, A., … Zayas, C. N. (2019). Pervasive human-driven decline of life on Earth points to the need for transformative change. Science, 366(1327), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aax3100

Dorninger, C., Hornborg, A., Abson, D. J., von Wehrden, H., Schaffartzik, A., Giljum, S., … Wieland, H. (2021). Global patterns of ecologically unequal exchange: Implications for sustainability in the 21st century. Ecological Economics, 179, 106824. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106824

Dryzek, J. S. (2016). Institutions for the Anthropocene: Governance in a Changing Earth System. British Journal of Political Science, 46(4), 937–956. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007123414000453

Dryzek, J. S., Norgaard, R. B., & Scholsberg, D. (2013). Climate-challenged society (169th ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199660100.001.0001

Edgerton, D. (2018). The Rise and Fall of the British Nation: A Twentieth-Century History. 01 edition. London, UK: Allen Lane.

EEA (European Environment Agency). (2019). The European environment — state and outlook 2020 (SOER 2020). Copenhagen, Denmark.

Eisenmenger, N., Pichler, M., Krenmayr, N., Noll, D., Plank, B., Schalmann, E., … Gingrich, S. (2020). The Sustainable Development Goals prioritize economic growth over sustainable resource use: a critical reflection on the SDGs from a socio-ecological perspective. Sustainability Science, 15, 1101–1110. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-020-00813-x

Elhacham, E., Ben-Uri, L., Grozovski, J., Bar-On, Y. M., & Milo, R. (2020). Global human-made mass exceeds all living biomass. Nature. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-3010-5

Fernández-Durán, R. (2010). Fin del Cambio Climático como vía para ‘‘Salvar todos juntos el Planeta”. Boletín CF+S, 46.

Fernández-Durán, R., & González-Reyes, L. (2018). En la espiral de la energía. Volumen I. Historia de la humanidad desde el papel de la energía (pero no solo) (2nd ed.). Madrid and País Valencià: Libros en Acción and Baladre.

Fontana, J. (2011). Por el bien del imperio. Una historia del mundo desde 1945. Barcelona: Ediciones de Pasado y Presente, SL.

Fontana, J. (2018). L’ofici d’historiador. Barcelona: Càtedra Ferrater Mora de Pensament Contemporani, Universitat de Girona, and ATMARCADIA, SL.

Foote, E. (1856). Circumstances affecting the heat of the Sun’s rays. Americal Journal of Science and Arts, 22, 382–383.

Foster, J. B., & Clark, B. (2012). The Planetary Emergency. Monthly Review, 64(7). https://doi.org/10.14452/MR-064-07-2012-11_1

Friedlingstein, P., O’Sullivan, M., Jones, M. W., Andrew, R. M., Hauck, J., Olsen, A., … Zaehle, S. (2020). Global Carbon Budget 2020. Earth System Science Data, 12(4), 3269–3340. https://doi.org/10.5194/essd-12-3269-2020

Gil, A., & Olcina, J. (2021). Tratado de Climatología (2nd ed.). Alicante: Publicaciones de la Universidad de Alicante.

Gómez-Baggethun, E., & Naredo, J. M. (2015). In search of lost time: the rise and fall of limits to growth in international sustainability policy. Sustainability Science, 10(3), 385–395. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11625-015-0308-6

Haberl, H., Wiedenhofer, D., Pauliuk, S., Krausmann, F., Müller, D. B., & Fischer-Kowalski, M. (2019). Contributions of sociometabolic research to sustainability science. Nature Sustainability, 2(3), 173–184. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41893-019-0225-2

Haberl, H., Wiedenhofer, D., Virág, D., Kalt, G., Plank, B., Brockway, P., … Creutzig, F. (2020). A systematic review of the evidence on decoupling of GDP, resource use and GHG emissions, part II: synthesizing the insights. Environmental Research Letters, 15(6), 065003. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab842a

Hammond, A. L. (1972). Inadvertent Climate Modification. Report of the Study of Man’s Impact on Climate (SMIC). M. I. T. Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1971. xxiv, 308 pp., illus. Paper, $2.95. Science, 176(4030), 38–38. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.176.4030.38-a

Harvey, D. (2005). A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780199283262.003.0010

Helm, D. (2008). Climate-change policy: why has so little been achieved?. Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 24(2), 211–238. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxrep/grn014

Hickel, J., & Kallis, G. (2020). Is Green Growth Possible?. New Political Economy, 25(4). https://doi.org/10.1080/13563467.2019.1598964

Hobsbawm, E. (1994). The Age Of Extremes. A history of the world, 1914-1991. US: Vintage Books.

Hulme, M. (2017). Climate change, concept of. The International Encyclopedia of Geography. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0343

Hulme, M. (2020). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The International Encyclopedia of Geography. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0254.pub2

IEA. (2020). World Energy Outlook 2020. Paris, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development/International Energy Agency.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2001). Climate Change 2001: Synthesis Report. A Contribution of Working Groups I, II, and III to the Third Assessment Report of the Integovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Watson, R.T. and the Core Writing Team (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York, NY, USA.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2014). Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team, R.K. Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. Geneva, Switzerland.

IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). (2018). Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change, sustainable development, and efforts to eradicate poverty [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, H.-O. Pörtner, D. Roberts, J. Skea, P.R. Shukla, A. Pirani, W. Moufouma-Okia, C. Péan, R. Pidcock, S. Connors, J.B.R. Matthews, Y. Chen, X. Zhou, M.I. Gomis, E. Lonnoy, T. Maycock, M. Tignor, and T. Waterfield (eds.)]. In Press.

Ivanovich, C. C., Ocko, I. B., Piris-Cabezas, P., & Petsonk, A. (2019). Climate benefits of proposed carbon dioxide mitigation strategies for international shipping and aviation. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 14949–1496. https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-14949-2019

Kallis, G., Kostakis, V., Lange, S., Muraca, B., Paulson, S., & Schmelzer, M. (2018). Research on degrowth. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 43, 291–316. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-102017-025941

Keeling, C. D. (1960). The concentration and isotopic abundances of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Tellus, XII(2), 200–203. https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v12i2.9366

Kellogg, W. W. (1987). Mankind’s impact on climate: the evolution of an awareness. Climatic Change, 10, 113–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00140251

Klein, N. (2014). This changes everything. London, United Kingdom: Penguin Books Ltd.

Klein, N. (2020). On Fire : The Burning Case for a Green New Deal. London, United Kingdom: Penguin Books Ltd.

Krausmann, F., Lauk, C., Haas, W., & Wiedenhofer, D. (2018). From resource extraction to outflows of wastes and emissions: The socioeconomic metabolism of the global economy, 1900–2015. Global Environmental Change, 52, 131–140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2018.07.003

Kuhnhenn, K., Costa, L., Mahnke, E., Schneider, L., & Lange, S. (2020). A Societal Transformation Scenario for Staying Below 1.5°C. Berlin: Volume 23 of the Publication Series Economic & Social Issues. Heinrich Böll Foundation and Konzeptwerk Neue Ökonomie 2020.

Kuyper, J., Schroeder, H., & Linnér, B.-O. (2018). The Evolution of the UNFCCC. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 43(1), 343–368. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-environ-102017-030119

Le Quéré, C, Korsbakken, J., Wilson, C., Andrew, R., Andres, R., Canadell, J., … van Vuuren, D. (2019). Drivers of declining CO2 emissions in 18 developed economies. Nature Climate Change, 9, 213–217. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-019-0419-7

Le Quéré, Corinne, Jackson, R. B., Jones, M. W., Smith, A. J. P., Abernethy, S., Andrew, R. M., … Peters, G. P. (2020). Temporary reduction in daily global CO2 emissions during the COVID-19 forced confinement. Nature Climate Change, 10, 647–653. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41558-020-0797-x

Le Treut, H., Somerville, R., Cubasch, U., Ding, Y., Mauritzen, C., Mokssit, A., … Prather, M. (2007). Historical Overview of Climate Change. In S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, … H. L. Miller (Eds.), Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.: Cambridge University Press.

Lee, D., Fahey, D., Skowron, A., Allen, M., Burkhardt, U., Chen, Q., … Wilcox, L. (2021). The contribution of global aviation to anthropogenic climate forcing for 2000 to 2018. Atmospheric Environment, 244(117834). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2020.117834

Liu, Z., Ciais, P., Deng, Z., & Al., E. (2020). Near-real-time monitoring of global CO2 emissions reveals the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Nature Communications, 11(5172). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18922-7

Liverman, D. (2015). Reading Climate Change and Climate Governance as Political Ecologies. In T. Perreault, G. Bridge, & J. McCarthy (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Political Ecology (pp. 303-319). Routledge.

Lohmann, L. (2006). Carbon Trading. A critical conversation on climate change, privatisation and power. Development Dialogue, 48.

MacDonald, G. J. F. (1966). Weather and climate modification—problems and prospects. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 47(1), 4–20. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477-47.1.4

Malm, A. (2016). Fossil Capital: The Rise of Steam Power and the Roots of Global Warming. London: Verso.

Martín, J., & Gallego, J. L. (2010). Apaga la luz. El libro sobre el cambio climático. Barcelona: Davinci Continental.

Mastini, R., Kallis, G., & Hickel, J. (2021). A Green New Deal without growth?. Ecological Economics, 179, 106832. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106832

McCarthy, J. (2015). A socioecological fix to capitalist crisis and climate change? The possibilities and limits of renewable energy. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 47(12), 2485–2502. https://doi.org/10.1177/0308518X15602491

McNutt, M. (2013). Climate Change Impacts. Science, 341(6145), 435–435. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1243256

Meadows, D. H., Meadows, D. L., Randers, J., & III, W. W. B. (1972). The limits to growth. New York: Universe Books.

Millward-Hopkins, J., Steinberger, J. K., Rao, N. D., & Oswalda, Y. (2020). Providing decent living with minimum energy: A global scenario. Global Environmental Change, 65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2020.102168

Milne, S. (2014). The Enemy Within. The Secret War Against the Miners (4th ed.). London, UK: Verso.

Moreno, C., Speich, D., & Fuhr, L. (2016). Carbon Metrics. Global abstractions and ecological epistemicide. Volume 42 of the Publication Series Ecology. Heinrich Böll Foundation.

Mussetta, P. (2020). La adaptación como respuesta al cambio climático. Notas acerca de las contracaras de un paradigma dominante. Scripta Nova, XXIV(634). https://doi.org/10.1344/sn2020.24.27841

Naredo, J. M. (2006). Raíces económicas del deterioro ecológico y social. Más allá de los dogmas. Madrid: Siglo XXI de España Editores, S.A.

Naredo, J. M. (2015). La economía en evolución (4th ed.). Madrid: Siglo XXI de España Editores, S.A.

Naredo, J. M. (2020). Sobre las preocupaciones y metas del movimiento ecologista. Comentarios y aportaciones a los diccionarios del desarrollo (1992) y del posdesarrollo (2019). Biblio3W, XXV(1296), 1–34.

Naredo, J. M., & Gutiérrez, L. (Eds.). (2005). La incidencia de la especie humana sobre la faz de la Tierra (1955-2005). Granada: Universidad de Granada and Fundación César Manrique.

Newell, P. (2011). The elephant in the room: Capitalism and global environmental change. Global Environmental Change, 21(1), 4–6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.11.011

Newell, P. (2012). Globalization and the Environment: Capitalism, Ecology and Power. United Kingdom: Polity Press.

Nieto, J., Carpintero, Ó., & Miguel, L. J. (2018). Less than 2C? An economic-environmental evaluation of the Paris Agreement. Ecological Economics, 146, 69–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.10.007

Nieto, Jaime, Carpintero, Ó., & Miguel, L. J. (2018). Less than 2C? An economic-environmental evaluation of the Paris Agreement. Ecological Economics, 146, 69–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.10.007

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). (2019). Global Climate Report - Annual 2019. Asheville, North Carolina.

NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration). (2020). Global Climate Report - October 2020. Asheville, North Carolina.

O’Brien, K. (2017). Climate change adaptation and social transformation. The International Encyclopedia of Geography. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118786352.wbieg0987

O’Brien, K. (2018). Is the 1.5°C target possible? Exploring the three spheres of transformation. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 31, 153–160. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2018.04.010

Özokcu, S., & Özdemir, Ö. (2017). Economic growth, energy, and environmental Kuznets curve. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 72, 639–647. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.059

Paterson, M. (2001). Climate policy as accumulation strategy: the failure of COP6 and emerging trends in climate politics. Global Environmental Politics, 1(2), 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1162/152638001750336550

Pauliuk, S., & Hertwich, E. (2015). Socioeconomic metabolism as paradigm for studying the biophysical basis of human societies. Ecological Economics, 119, 83–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2015.08.012

Pelling, M. (2011). Adaptation to Climate Change: From Resilience to Transformation. London: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203889046

Perkins, K. M., Munguia, N. E., Ellenbecker, M., Moure-Eraso, R., & Velazquez, L. E. (2020). COVID-19 Pandemic Lessons to Facilitate Future Engagement in the Global Climate Crisis. Journal of Cleaner Production, In Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.125178

Piketty, T. (2014). Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. https://doi.org/10.4159/9780674369542

Plass, G. N. (1956). The carbon dioxide theory of climate change. Tellus, VIII(2), 140–154. https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v8i2.8969

Redclift, M. (1987). Sustainable development. Exploring the contradictions. London: Taylor & Francis e-Library.

Revelle, R., & Suess, H. E. (1957). Carbon dioxide exchange between atmosphere and ocean and the question of an increase of atmospheric CO2 during the past decades. Tellus, 9(1), 18–27. https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v9i1.9075

Rich, N. (2020). Perdiendo la Tierra. La década en que podríamos haber detenido el cambio climático. Madrid: Capitán Swing.

Ripple, W. J., Wolf, C., Newsome, T. M., Barnard, P., Moomaw, W. R., & Altere. (2020). World Scientists’ Warning of a Climate Emergency. BioScience, 70(1).

Ripple, W. J., Wolf, C., Newsome, T. M., Galetti, M., Alamgir, M., Crist, E., … Laurance, W. F. (2017). World Scientists’ Warning to Humanity: A Second Notice. BioScience, 67(12), 1026–1028. https://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/bix125

Romero, J., & Olcina, J. (Eds.). (2021). Cambio climático en el Mediterráneo. Procesos, riesgos y políticas. Valencia: Tirant lo Blanc.

Saez, E., & Zucman, G. (2019). The triumph of Injustice. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Ltd.

SCEP (Study of Critical Environmental Problems). (1970). Man’s Impact on the Global Climate: Report of the Study of Critical Environmental Problems. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Schandl, H., Fischer-Kowalski, M., West, J., Giljum, S., Dittrich, M., Eisenmenger, N., … Fishman, T. (2018). Global Material Flows and Resource Productivity: Forty Years of Evidence. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 22(4), 827–838. https://doi.org/10.1111/jiec.12626

Sharmina, M., Edelenbosch, O. Y., Wilson, C., Freeman, R., Gernaat, D. E. H. J., Gilbert, P., … Quéré, C. Le. (2020). Decarbonising the critical sectors of aviation, shipping, road freight and industry to limit warming to 1.5–2°C. Climate Policy, Ahead-of-p, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/14693062.2020.1831430

SMIC (Study of Man’s Impact on Climate). (1971). Inadvertent Climate Modification. Report of the Study of Man’s Impact on Climate (SMIC). Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Smith, N. (2007). Nature as an accumulation strategy. In C. Leys and L. Panitch (Eds), The Socialist Register 2007: Coming to Terms with Nature (pp. 16-36). London: Merlin.

Steffen, W., Crutzen, P. J., & McNeill, J. R. (2007). The Anthropocene: Are Humans Now Overwhelming the Great Forces of Nature?. Ambio, 36(8), 614–621. https://doi.org/10.1579/0044-7447(2007)36[614:TAAHNO]2.0.CO;2

Stevenson, H. (2021). Reforming global climate governance in an age of bullshit. Globalizations, 18(1), 86–102. https://doi.org/10.1080/14747731.2020.1774315

Stevenson, H., & Dryzek, J. S. (2013). Democratizing Global Climate Governance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139208628

Tapia, J. A., Ionides, E. L., & Carpintero, Ó. (2012). Climate change and the world economy: short-run determinants of atmospheric CO2. Environmental Science & Policy, 21, 50–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2012.03.008

Thatcher, M. (2002). Statecraft. Strategies for a changing world. New York: HarperCollins.

Trisos, C. H., Merow, C., & Pigot, A. L. (2020). The projected timing of abrupt ecological disruption from climate change. Nature, 580, 496–501. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2189-9

Tyndall, J. (1861). The Bakerian Lecture: on the absorption and radiation of heat by gases and vapours, and on the physical connexion of radiation, absorption, and conduction. Philosophical Transactions. The Royal Society, 151, 28–29. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstl.1861.0001

UNCHE (United Nations Conference on the Human Environment). (1972). Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment (p. 81). New York.

UNEP/UNCTAD (United Nations Development Programme/United Nations Comission on Trade and Development). (1974). Patterns of resource use, environment and development strategies. Cocoyoc, Mexico, October 8-12, 1974.

UNFCCC. (1997). Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. December 1st-10th, 1997. United Nations. Retrieved from https://unfccc.int/es/kyoto_protocol

UNFCCC. (2015). Paris Agreement. December 12th 2015. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Retrieved from https://unfccc.int/es/process-and-meetings/the-paris-agreement/el-acuerdo-de-paris

Vadén, T., Lähde, V., Majava, A., Järvensivu, P., Toivanen, T., Hakala, E., & Eronen, J. T. (2020). Decoupling for ecological sustainability: A categorisation and review of research literature. Environmental Science & Policy, 112, 236–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2020.06.016

Valero, A., Valero, A., Calvo, G., & Ortegoa, A. (2018). Material bottlenecks in the future development of green technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 93, 178–200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.05.041

Valladares, F., Magro, S., & Martín-Forés, I. (2019). Anthropocene, the challenge for “Homo sapiens” to set its own limits. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica, 45(1), 33–59. https://doi.org/10.18172/cig.3681

van der Sluijs, J. P., van Est, R., & Riphagen, M. (2010). Beyond consensus: reflections from a democratic perspective on the interaction between climate politics and science. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2, 409–415. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cosust.2010.10.003

Verdnasky, V. [1997(1926)]. La Biosfera. Madrid: Fundación Argentaria-Visor Dis., Colección Economía y Naturaleza. Recuperado de https://fcmanrique.org/fcm-publicacion/la-biosfera-2/?cpg=3&lang=es

Wamsler, C., Schäpke, N., Fraude, C., Stasiak, D., Bruhn, T., Lawrence, M., … Mundaca, L. (2020). Enabling new mindsets and transformative skills for negotiating and activating climate action: Lessons from UNFCCC conferences of the parties. Environmental Science & Policy, 112, 227–235. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2020.06.005

Ward, J. D., Sutton, P. C., Werner, A. D., Costanza, R., Mohr, S. H., & Simmons, C. T. (2016). Is Decoupling GDP Growth from Environmental Impact Possible?. PLOS ONE, 11(10), e0164733. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164733

WCED (World Commission on Environment and Development ). (1987). Our common future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Weart, S. R. (2008). The discovery of global warming. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press (revised and expanded edition).

Wiedenhofer, D., Virág, D., Kalt, G., Plank, B., Streeck, J., Pichler, M., … Haberl, H. (2020). A systematic review of the evidence on decoupling of GDP, resource use and GHG emissions, part I: bibliometric and conceptual mapping. Environmental Research Letters, 15(6), 063002. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-9326/ab8429

Wiedmann, T., Lenzen, M., Keyßer, L. T., & Steinberger, J. K. (2020). Scientists’ warning on affluence. Nature Communications, 11(3107), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16941-y

Wilson, C. L., & Matthews, W. H. (1971). Inadvertent climate modification: Report of the Conference, Study of Man’s Impact on Climate. Cambridge, Massachusetts.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization). (1979). Proceedings of the world climate conference: A conference of experts on climate and mankin. Geneva, Switzerland, 12-23 February 1979: World Meteorological Organization No 537.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization). (1988). World Conference on The Changing Atmosphere. Implications for Global Security (Toronto Conference). Geneva, Switzerland: World Meteorological Organization. No. 710.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization). (1990). Second World Climate Conference. Conference statement. Geneva, Switzerland.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization). (2009a). World Climate Conference-3. Conference Statement. Summary of the Expert Segment. 31 August – 4 September 2009. Geneva, Switzerland.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization). (2009b). World Climate Conference-3. Global Framework for Climate Services. Brief Note. 31 August-4 September 2009. Geneva, Switzerland.

Zelli, F., & van Asselt, H. (2010). The overlap between the UN climate regime and the World Trade Organization. In F. Biermann, P. Pattberg, & F. Zelli (Eds.), Global Climate Governance Beyond 2012 (pp. 79–96). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139107150.008

Zillman, J. W. (2009). A history of climate activities. WMO Bulletin, 58(3), 141–150.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO.19351





Copyright (c) 2022 Cati Torres, Joan Moranta, Ivan Murray

Licencia de Creative Commons
Este obra está bajo una licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento 4.0 Internacional.