Investigaciones Geográficas

Examinando las fronteras florísticas entre tipologias de jardín a escala global

Josep Padullés Cubino, Josep Vila Subirós, Carles Barriocanal Lozano

DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO2014.61.05

Resumen

Los jardines son una importante fuente de bienes y servicios para los residentes de un hogar. Su función se traduce directamente en el tipo de plantas que en ellos se cultiva. Por otro lado, la terminología usada para denominar los distintos tipos de jardín en inglés (garden, homegarden, forest garden, etc.) varía según su función y propósito. Los factores que explican la diferenciación y distribución de los jardines a escala global no habían sido previamente explorados hasta ahora. En este estudio se han analizado los inventarios florísticos de 44 conjuntos de jardines de to do el mundo para explorar sus similitudes taxonómicas y los factores que configuran la distribución de su flora. Para ello, se escogieron distintas variables biofísicas y socioeconómicas a una escala apropiada de trabajo. Como resultado, los factores biofísicos y climáticos (temperatura, precipitación, evapotranspiración potencial y distancia entre asentamientos) se hallaron significativamente relacionados con la distribución de las especies; no obstante, todos estos factores resultaron ser menos importantes que el GDP (PIB) per cápita, utilizado aquí como indicador de los ingresos del hogar, y que se obtuvo como el principal impulsor de la composición de los jardines. También el resto de factores sociales y culturales incluidos en el análisis, como son la similitud entre las lenguas de los distintos asentamientos o la densidad de población, se encontraron como variables significativas. Cabe señalar que el presente análisis omite cierto número de variables debido a la no disponibilidad de datos. Algunas de estas variables son el tamaño del jardín o el género de su dueño, las cuales han sido reconocidas previamente como agentes influyentes en la composición vegetal de los jardines. El estudio concluye que los géneros vegetales cultivados en los conjuntos de jardines son muy diferentes entre sí y que, por lo tanto, las distinciones entre tipologías de jardín son difíciles de establecer a partir de tan solo datos florísticos. Por último, se discuten también las implicaciones que podrían tener posibles futuras fluctuaciones en el nivel de la renta (causadas por una severa crisis económica) o el cambio climático, sobre la diversidad bio-cultural y la seguridad alimentaria.

Palabras clave

Jardines; Huertos familiares; Biodiversidad; Etnobotánica; Seguridad alimentaria

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO2014.61.05





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