Caracterizando el descenso reciente del consumo de agua en ciudades italianas

David Sauri Pujol, Noemi Baldino

Resumen

Cada vez existe mayor evidencia de que el consumo doméstico de agua está disminuyendo en muchas ciudades del mundo desarrollado. Un conjunto numeroso y heterogéneo de factores puede explicar este declive, desde fenómenos estructurales como cambios en la composición de las poblaciones urbanas o en la base económica de las ciudades hasta cambios tecnológicos, aumento de la concienciación ciudadana o precios e impuestos más altos para el agua. En este artículo examinamos el descenso del consumo de agua en las diez mayores ciudades italianas. El sector italiano del agua urbana se caracteriza por una gobernanza altamente fragmentada que genera ineficiencias importantes en las redes de distribución y que puede quedar muy expuesta a los efectos del cambio climático. Al mismo tiempo, sin embargo, existe una firme oposición a la privatización. La disminución en el consumo de agua en el caso italiano muestra al mismo tiempo factores demográficos (envejecimiento), sociales (migración) y económicos (riqueza). Nuestra conclusión apunta hacia una combinación de factores estructurales y políticas activas que parecen ser más importantes en las ciudades del norte y del centro que en el sur del país.

Palabras clave

Consumo de agua; factores estructurales; población; eficiencia; ciudades; Italia.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO2018.69.01





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