Cómo la réplica del modelo del distrito industrial del noreste italiano ha fallado en Timisoara (Romania)

Marina Bertoncin, Andrea Pase, Daria Quatrida, Alessandra Scroccaro

Resumen

Los distritos industriales del noreste italiano son considerados frecuentemente como modelos de éxito por su organización económica y por eso se han vuelto casi un mito arquetípico. Una de las razones de este éxito es la proximidad (sea geográfica que relacional), particularmente en lo que respecta a la creación y desarrollo de los distritos y a sus capacidades de innovación y competitividad global. Esta investigación compara Montebelluna, un distrito en el noreste italiano, con Timisoara (Romania) que ha sido una de las áreas de deslocalización preferidas de las firmas vénetas. Esta comparación ha permitido centrar la atención en las categorías no económicas (como la confianza, las relaciones cara a cara, las actitudes cooperativas y el contexto local...) que han contribuido a su éxito, pero que en realidad son a menudo sobrevalorados. Sobre todo, este análisis revela como estos distritos han ocultado una distribución inicua del poder, no solo al interno de las firmas y entre ellas, sino también entre las firmas y sus territorios deslocalizados. Hoy el modelo “noreste” es cuestionado y discutido; sin embargo, un replanteamiento de las dinámicas regionales solo es posible si se toman en consideración estas dimensiones ocultas de desarrollo de distrito.

Palabras clave

distrito industrial; deslocalización; crisis económica; proximidad; relaciones de poder; región del Veneto; Timisoara.

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.14198/INGEO2018.69.05





Copyright (c) 2018 Marina Bertoncin, Andrea Pase, Daria Quatrida, Alessandra Scroccaro

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