Investigaciones Geográficas

¿Influyen tiempo y clima en la distribución del nuevo coronavirus (SARS CoV-2)? Una revisión desde una perspectiva biogeográfica

Oliver Gutiérrez-Hernández, Luis V. García


El 11 de marzo de 2020, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declaró pandemia global el brote de la enfermedad COVID-19, producida por el nuevo coronavirus SARS CoV-2. En este artículo se efectúa una revisión de las contribuciones científicas publicadas hasta la fecha que relacionan las condiciones atmosféricas con la distribución del SARS CoV-2. La mayor parte de ellas concluyen que existe cierta influencia del tiempo atmosférico y/o el clima en la distribución y el progreso de la COVID-19. En concreto, un ambiente fresco y seco, en el contexto de un clima mesotérmico, parece el más idóneo para la expansión del SARS CoV-2. Sin embargo, un número significativo de estudios revisados adolece de diseños de investigación inadecuados, lo que hace muy difícil aislar de forma fehaciente el efecto genuino de las condiciones atmosféricas en la propagación de la enfermedad de otros efectos, incluidos los posibles artefactos derivados de la prevalencia observada, la dependencia espacial y temporal de los datos y la propia geografía humana: conectividad geográfica, movilidad, sistema sanitario, etc. Se concluye que sólo existen indicios, no evidencia, de que las condiciones atmosféricas pueden llegar a explicar una fracción muy limitada de la dinámica espaciotemporal del SARS CoV-2.

Palabras clave

geografía médica; biogeografía; patogeografía; bioclimatología; enfermedades; pandemia; COVID-19.

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